Translating assessment results into programmatic response recommendations is challenging when it comes to protection activities.

The analysis of vulnerabilities allows to generate protection intervention recommendations.

The analysis of vulnerabilities is complex as it should allow to understand:

  • How multiple vulnerabilities interact between each other (prioritisation through criticality)?
  • What is, for each vulnerability type, the specific profile of a population group in terms of magnitude and severity?

The Rights-based approach

Protection programme are designed according to the Rights-Based approach. As such, more than the needs, it is the vulnerability of specific population group towards rights violation that informs resources allocation.

Vulnerability level for each specific risk = function(risk occurrence) + function(exposure to risk of basic right violation) + function(coping capacity before or after violation)

Protection activities for UNHCR:

  • Prevent occurrence of basic right violation event (Environment Building actions) &&
  • Limit the effects of violation events consequences (Remedial actions) &&
  • Respond to basic right violation event (Responsive actions)

Protection analysis is therefore linked to specific events linked to specific Right groups defined by UNHCR Result Based management.

Rights Group Basic right type Violation event
Favourable Protection Environment Non-refoulement Non-admission, Refoulement
- No discrimination Detention
- Freedom of movement Eviction, deportation
Fair Protection Processes and Documentation Documentation No issuance/renewal of residency
- Right to a nationality Birth Registration
Community Empowerment and Self Reliance Livelihood Negative coping mechanism (Prostitution, child labour, early marriage, begging, stealing,.)
- Peaceful co-existence Intercommunity violence
Basic Needs and Essential Services Education Children out of school
- Food Malnutrition
- Social & economic rights Non access to services (healh, schools, MPSS)
- Housing, Wash & Shelter Sub standard living conditions
Security from Violence and Exploitation Age, gender and diversity mainstreaming Sex & Gender based violence, child abuses

Vulnerability Profile

On each topic, the protection assessment should allow to identify the affected population’s vulnerability profile:

  • Threat in terms of criticality , i.e. how important is the threat compared to other. This is measured through priority ranking.

  • Threat in terms of occurrence in order to define magnitude

  • Capacities and capabilities in order to define severity – “Severity” (or intensity) expresses the degree of unmet needs (it is thus related to shortages and deficits, as opposed to fulfillment and wellbeing) or the degree of something harmful,harsh, stern, irreversible or not desirable. As such it is expressed through a form of rating.

The vulnerability profile (combination of criticality/magnitude/severity) for each topic will allow to prioritise the relevant activities. Severity and Priority are therefore appropriate way to measure vulnerability.

The risk profile will help designing the best intervention approach for each group:

Activity Criticality Magnitude Severity
Environment Building actions ++ + -
Remedial actions + ++ +
Responsive actions + - ++

Analysis Topics

Favourable Protection Environment

List of analysis modules

  • Protection-sensitive border mechanism
  • Counselling & Legal aid
  • Freedom of movement & Detention
  • Multiple Displacement & Movement

Fair Protection Processes and Documentation

List of analysis modules

  • Birth Registration
  • Civil status documentation
  • Family re-unification
  • Refugee registration
  • Risk of eviction

Community Empowerment and Self Reliance

List of analysis modules:

  • Social cohesion
  • Housing, shelter & WASH (Water, Sanitation & Hygien) conditions
  • Employment & livelihood
  • Child Labour
  • Assets & Budget

Basic Needs and Essential Services

List of analysis modules:

  • Refugees with specific needs
  • Assistance received
  • Negative coping mechanism
  • Food security
  • Access to health services
  • Education & Out of School Children

Security from Violence and Exploitation

List of analysis modules:

  • Sexual Harassment & Violence (Rape)
  • Harassment between youth
  • Gender inequality
  • Domestic Violence (Parental stress, Isolation at home)
  • Forced and early marriage
  • Violence among children
  • Armed recruitment
  • Harassment & Violence towards LGBTI
  • Security & Civil violence